What to do when the trace doesn’t act as an “ideal” connection.
A mismatch in trace symmetry can cause noise coupling or timing issues.
Exact adaptations of impedance are often not necessary. Instead, minimize impedance deviations.
In part 1 last month, we took a back-to-basics approach and discussed line impedance and its effects on signal integrity. Every electrical conductor comprises capacitance, an inductance, and a frequency-dependent ohmic resistance. With increasing frequencies, these electrical characteristics will influence and distort the signal.
Applying a transmission line model based on the telegrapher’s equations (as typically common in signal integrity considerations, except for when considering extremely high data rates, e.g., Serdes channels), one often-used general expression for the characteristic impedance of a lossy transmission line is:
The basics of line impedance influences.