Because they don’t support a multilevel hierarchical finished goods BoM.
The rate of MES system implementations in electronics manufacturing is not slowing. The rise of Industry 4.0 and the concept of big data have stimulated many companies to seek ways of collecting all important data in real time. If implemented properly, Industry 4.0 will eliminate the need for MES systems. Taking their place will be cyber-physical systems using machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and big data used to make intelligent decisions to run production without any human intervention.
There are still no signs, however, that we will come to terms with which M2M standard to use for Industry 4.0. Among Japanese machine vendors, an IPC-led effort, an ASM-led effort, and a Siemens-led effort, everyone else is left guessing what will happen and if an industry-wide standard will emerge at all. Until that happens, and until machine vendors implement better support for Industry 4.0, electronics manufacturers are pushing forward with MES implementations.
Implementing an MES system for an electronics manufacturing plant is a complicated project. While there is no shortage of software companies claiming to provide an MES solution, very few actually succeed in implementing a comprehensive solution. Why is that?
Electronics manufacturers implement an MES solution for one or more of the following reasons:
An MES implementation in electronics manufacturing can be successful only if the following
One of the fundamental mistakes MES solution providers make is to assume
MES = routing enforcement + component traceability + test data collection.
The industry now demands much more than a handful of interfaces used to capture board movement on the floor, collecting some test data, and collecting incomplete traceability data. Most MES implementations only achieve that level of success.
An MES solution for electronics manufacturing does much more than that. It:
The main reasons for MES project failures can be summarized as follows:
It is not all about managing the MES implementation project. There are also technical requirements for a successful MES implementation:
No amount of cloud processing, IoT, or 3-D printing can help implement a successful MES or Industry 4.0 project if the solution is not built on sound data models and fundamental principles.
Very often, an MES project fails because it is built on a flat SMT-level BoM and a single work order. PCBs are serialized for SMT work orders. Even a finished goods serial number is tied to the SMT-level work order. Often, for example, an operator in burn-in operation must open an SMT work order to scan serial numbers into the burn-in machine locations because serial numbers are rejected if a burn-in work order is used. That is the reason it is rare to see a successful, comprehensive MES/traceability implemented in backend operations.
Instead, a multilevel hierarchical finished goods BoM, as illustrated in, must be supported. Figure 1 shows a finished goods BoM, as defined in SAP, for example. An MES system must support several concepts to implement such a BoM:
With this kind of BoM in place, it is easy to collect traceability data for different work orders and serial numbers, all included in a single finished goods BoM and enforced using valid PCB serial numbers for a given finished goods serial number.
Training is an important part of an MES installation. The supplier’s engineers need to be properly trained and understand electronics manufacturing. It is also important to train and empower the customer’s MES team. They need to take ownership of the project. Customer engineers want to be part of something new and important, but they must understand it first. When customer teams are competent and well-trained, MES implementations have a greater chance to be successful, and the supplier’s support is much easier. We have customers who have not made emergency calls in a decade because their team knows how to respond in every situation. And customer engineers know that if they know the MES system, their job is secure because they are needed.
In one of our recent projects, we designed and put into production a vision-based system for material receiving that automatically scans supplier labels, verifies data with direct interface to SAP and prints the label. This eliminates placing the wrong label and placing wrong parts because the label is automatically reverified after being physically placed on the reel. We designed the software solution; the customer designed the hardware, and together we are applying for a patent in China. Engage the customer. Make them feel they own the project.
If the MES solution is built on sound fundamentals, an efficient execution of the following four stages leads to a successful MES implementation:
In most cases, MES solution providers skip the first two phases, or just perform a brief process overview, and the result is a failed or incomplete MES implementation. The result is a patchwork of an MES system that is built on bad fundamentals.
In some cases, the customer bears a high degree of responsibility for a failed MES project. A red flag is high engineer turnover. Another is management that does not value suppliers. Customer management and engineers must understand an MES is meant to help them improve their business and satisfy their customer requirements, not to do their job. The customer needs to learn, accept and maintain data for an MES solution to be successfully implemented and used in their plant.